Ⅰ. Port Introduction
1. Geographical Position
Fangchang Port’s geographical position is 108°20′E, 21°37′N. The port is situated on the north shore of Beibu Bay in south of Guangxi Province, which has a unique geographical position. The bay is deepwater and surrounded on three sides by hills that similar to an inland lake, so it is a good place for ships to shelter from wind. Ship channels are short, water areas and land-based areas are wide, and the available coastline is long.
2. Natural Condition
Temperature: Fangcheng Port is in the subtropical zone. It has a favorable climate that neither extremely cold in winter nor extremely hot in summer. The average temperature of the whole year is 22.5℃.
Wind：the major wind direction is NNE, the secondary wind direction is SSE, and the strong wind direction is E. The average annual wind speed is 5 meters per second.
Mist: Few misty days happen, at the average of 10.9 days in a year. They often happen in the morning of later winter and early spring and last for about 2 to 3 hours. The mist usually dissipates as the sun rises.
Hydrology: The tide is regular diurnal tide. The highest tide level is 5.52 meters, the maximum tide difference is 5.39 meters, the average tide level is 3.7 meters and there are 315 days that the tide level is higher than 3 meters all over the year.
3. Transportation Condition
The Port of Fangcheng, one of 25 major coastal ports in China, is the extreme southwest deepwater port in China’s mainland coastline. It is also the biggest port in west region and considered as a bridgehead for importing from the east and exporting to the west, a major door on the sea that can move to the world from southwest area and a large stage that connects China, ASEAN and services for west area’s logistics.
Fangcheng Port connects Qian-chuan Line on the north, leans on Yunnan Province, is next to Guangdong, Hainan, Hong Kong and Macao in the east and near to Beibu Gulf in the south, which is a belt area that connects Great Southwest of China’s mainland that is rich in natural resources and Southeast Asia that has strong economic vitality.
Nanfang Highway stretches directly to the port and connects the southwest's main passageway to the sea, which enable Fangcheng Port to link to the nationwide highways.
The Railway can connect to the nationwide railways via Nanfang Line and Liqin Line. Especially, arriving in Fangcheng Port via Nankun Line, Shuibo Line and Neikun Line can shorten the haul distance and save time. After Nankun Line putting into operation, the commodities from Great Southwest, including Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Chongqing, will move towards all over the world via Fangcheng Port conveniently.
In terms of ocean shipping, domestic shipping lines can connect economic circles including “Pearl River Delta”, “Yangtze River Delta” and Bohai Rim. Fangcheng Port is navigable to 220 ports from 70 countries and regions, which is covering the whole world by sea shipping network. In terms of container lines, it opens international direct routes or transfer lines towards Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, Middle East, Europe, US WEST, US EAST, Macao and Hong Kong, as well as a public container expressway: Fangcheng Port-Shekou/Chiwan-the whole world.
4. Economic Hinterland
The direct economic hinterland of Fangcheng Port is Fangcheng city and Qinzhou city in Guangxi Province, the areas in the south of Hongshui River that along with Nankun Line in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and Baise, Nanning and southern part of Nanning. The indirect economic hinterland is the rest part in Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing, southwest of Chongqing and west part of Central China including Hunan, Hubei and Henan.
In its economic hinterland, it has south subtropical climate and is rich in agriculture and forestry resources, marine resources and mineral resources. In its indirect hinterland, the mineral resources are so rich that more than 50 kinds ranking in the top 10.
Ⅱ. Port Development
1. Port History
Since the Autonomous Region implemented the major engagement for conducting costal infrastructures, Fangcheng port has investment over three times more than that of the total amount before “the ninth-five” during only a few years. It had conducted 11 deepwater berths of over 50,000 tons that include an ore harbor of 200,000 tons. Some symbolic structures drive the port’s core competitiveness up to a new level. For example, it is the first in China to load and upload directly from ship to ship in the 200,000-ton ore harbor, and the planned upload efficiency is ranking first in South China’s coastal ports. The 14# harbor is the first modern dedicated harbor for sulfur and phosphorus, and in 2005, these two commodities’ throughput is 23% and 43% of all nationwide ports’ completed amount. The liquid chemical harbor of 50,000 tons put an end to the blank history of this field in Guangxi Province. The supported 3000-acreage processing and storage zone is becoming an industrial and logistical zone that integrates petrochemical industry, storage, marketing and distribution which is unprecedented in Guangxi Province. The 10# container berth, belongs to the third generation, is the best multi-functional, the best supporting and the most effective one of coastal ports group in the southwest.
2. Port Planning
According to the planning and the demand for regional economic development, in the “eleventh-five”, Fangcheng Port improved the port function and the specialization and modernization of logistics system comprehensively. By the end of the “eleventh-five”, it had conducted a 200,000-ton dedicated harbor for ore and its supporting shipping channel, and begun to conduct 13# to 17# berths of 30,000 to 80,000 tons and a 50,000-ton liquid chemical harbor. The transformation of 50,000-ton approach channel and conduction of the chemical wharf in Donggang are finished and put into operation. Combing to the construction of the new port area and technology transformation of the old port area, it will build professional berths and facilities for iron ore, sulfur and phosphorus, coal, grain and oil, liquid chemicals and contains under the needs of specialization. Additionally, it will build 18# to 22# berths of 50,000 to 100,000 tons to make the planned trafficability of the port over 60 million tons.
Ⅲ. Port Situation
⑴ Port Condition
Fangcheng Port, one of the 24 major ports in China, is the largest one in the west and also the most convenient and important external trading port in the southwest of China including Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing.
The termination of Fangcheng Port has three characters:
(a) It focuses on commodities of foreign trade which accounted for more than 85% of the total throughput;
(b) It focuses on commodities from Southwest which accounted for more than 80%;
(c) It focuses on predominant goods and break bulk cargoes which accounted for more than 80%. The main commodities are iron sand, phosphate sand, barite, sulfur, alumina, coal, steel, soy bean, fertilizer, industrial salt and so on. With the development of the container services, the proportion of break bulk cargoes goes down year by year.
At present, Fangcheng Port is capable to load and upload all kinds of groceries, bulk cargo, containers and petrochemicals, as well as has the capacity of storage, transfer and through transportation. The actual annual trafficability of the port is over 30 million tons, among which annual trafficability of containers is 250,000 TEU.
Since the opening of the port in 1983, Fangcheng Port has navigable relationship with more than 220 ports from over 80 countries and regions. The transfer commodities mainly are as follows:
Import: metallic mineral, grains, fertilizer, seed fat, product of chemical industry, oil and so on.
Export: non-metallic ore, coal, cement, wood chips, steel and so on.
Ports Distribution and Berths Situation
In the port, there are 35 berths, among which 31 are productive berths, and 21 deepwater berths of more than 10,000 tons. The biggest one has the planned berthing capability of 200,000 tons.
Storage Yard and Its Capacity
There is a storage yard of more than 2 million square meters.
Loading and Unloading Machine
The port has big machines that dedicated to storage, loading and uploading for bulk grain, bulk cement, petroleum products, seed fat, liquid natural gas, phosphoric acid, asphaltum and so on.
The initial planned span of Fangcheng Port’s shipping channel is 6.9 miles. The channel is divided into three legs – Sanya, Xixian, Niutou, and four turning points. After continual transformation, the smallest curvature radius of the channel has reached to 1,000 meters. The bottom of the channel for Sanya and Xixian is 100 meter wide, -8.0 meter deep, and the proportion of side slope is 1:10. For Niutou legs, it is 80 meter wide, -8.2 meter deep and the proportion is 1:5. The whole channel’s trending curvature radius is 2000 meters, which is favorable for ships entering and leaving port safely.
Anchorage Ground 0# is used for pilotage and quarantine. It is an area of water with center at 21°27′56″N，108°21′13″E, 1000 meters as radius. The depth of the water is more than -12 meters. The Anchorage Ground 1# is used for large ships waiting berth and taking shelter from the wind, lying north of Anchorage Ground 0#. This Anchorage Ground has 10 berths, numbered from B1 to B10. Each berth is about 450 meters in radius, -12 meters deep, with silt and clay as bottom material.
2. Main Business
The main business for Fangcheng Port includes: sulfur transfer, coal and ore transfer, container transfer, and bulk cargo, fertilizer and grains transfer.
In 1990, the commodities throughput is over 2 million tons.
In 1996, the commodities throughput broke through 5 million tons for the first time, and from then on, it jumped to a higher level every year.
In 1998, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput reached to 7.065 million tons.
In 1999, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput reached to 7.08 million tons.
In 2000, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput reached to 9 million tons.
In 2001，Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput broke through 10 million tons.
In 2002, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput reached to 11.16 million tons.
In 2003, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput reached to 13.2 million tons.
In 2004, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput is over 16 million tons, and the completed cargo throughput is 16.0846 million tons. The main commodities are metallic ore of 5.3551 million tons which accounted for 33.29% of the total throughput, and non-metallic ore of 2.3648 million tons which accounted for 14.7% of the total amount.
In 2005, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput reached to 20.063 million tons, up 24.7%; the container throughput reached to 105,000 TEU, increasing 31%. The foreign trade throughput accounted for 88.6% of the total amount, and the commodities from southwest accounted for over 90% in total transship cargo of the whole port.
In 2006, the throughput broke through 25 million tons, increasing more than 25%.
In 2007, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput reached to 50.52 million tons, up 49.4%, which recorded a new high.
In 2008, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput is more than 54 million tons, among which 37.013 million tons are completed by the company of Fangcheng Port, increasing 22.1%.
In 2010, Fangcheng Port’s the commodities throughput reached to 60 million tons.